1) Small steps in behavior that are reinforced, one after the other, to create a particular goal behavior are known as:
2) In a(n) ________, the occurrence of reinforcement is more predictable and therefore the individual being reinforced is more likely to adjust his response to the timing of the reinforcement.
fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
variable interval schedule of reinforcement
3) What are the two kinds of behavior that all organisms are capable of?
involuntary and voluntary
reckless and controlled
pleasant and unpleasant
actions and basic survival instincts
4) One of B. F. Skinner’s famous experiments involved:
teaching dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell.
teaching rats to learn how to obtain food.
teaching babies to avoid loud noises.
teaching coyotes to ignore sheep.
5) In defining learning, “_____” refers to the fact that when people learn anything, a part of their brain is physically changed to record what they have learned, and that change remains even if the behavior does not.
6) Which of the following individuals believed that cognition was an important part of behavior?
B. F. Skinner
7) In his study of rats in mazes, Tolman concluded that the rats in the group that did not receive reinforcement for solving the maze had:
more interest in the reinforcement than did the other groups.
learned the maze by wandering around in it and forming a cognitive map.
learned to expect reinforcement every tenth day.
been more motivated by the variable interval schedule of reinforcement.
8) Further studies that followed Köhler’s work with chimpanzees:
have shown that chimpanzees are the only animals that have insight.
have shown definitively that animals have insight.
have found support for the concept of animal insight.
have found no support for the concept of animal insight.
9) In a later modification of the classic Bobo doll experiment, the children who had seena model beat up the doll and then get rewarded showed aggression toward the doll. Another group had seen the model get punished rather than rewarded. Which of the following statements is true about these other children?
They did not beat up the doll until offered a reward to demonstrate what the model had done.
They refused to beat up the doll under any circumstances.
They beat up the doll but denied doing so when asked about it.
Half of them beat up the doll and half did not.
10) Sammy and his friends are watching animated fight scenes on television. Based on Bandura’s findings in the Bobo doll experiment, it seems likely that later, at play, Sammy and his friends will:
imitate the dialogue between the characters.
be slightly less aggressive.
be much less aggressive.
imitate many of the violent actions they witnessed on TV.
11) After having many cavities fixed as a child, Kyle now has an active dislike of the dentist’s drill. His tendency to become anxious when hearing a similar-sounding noise is termed:
12) Which of the following would be considered negative reinforcement?
a child who had previously been whining that they want candy becomes quiet after getting the candy
grounding a teenager who returns home after curfew
receiving a traffic ticket for speeding
taking an aspirin when you have a headache
13) Which of the following is one of Bandura’s elements of observational learning?
14) Which psychologist is best known for working with children and a Bobo doll to study whether aggressive behavior is learned by watching others be aggressive?
B. F. Skinner
15) The four elements of observational learning are attention, memory, ______, and ______.
16) A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response is a/an:
17) Pavlov initially set out to study his dogs’ ___________.
18) ______ is the classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.
19) In his classical conditioning experiment, Pavlov’s dogs were conditioned to salivate when they:
saw their trainers.
saw their food bowl.
smelled their food.
heard the sound of the metronome.
20) ________ pioneered the empirical study of the basic principles of classical conditioning.
Edward L. Thorndike
B. F. Skinner
John B. Watson